A rescuer should move a collapsed or injured victim:
to ensure the safety of both the rescuer and the victim
where extreme weather conditions or difficult terrain indicate that movement of the victim is essential
to make possible the care of airway, breathing, and circulation.
(For example, an unconscious breathing victim should be turned on their side.)
to make possible the control of bleeding.
Note: The airway takes precedence over any fracture, including a broken neck.
When moving an injured person avoid bending and/or twisting the neck and back.Use as many people as possible.Support the head, neck, shoulders, pelvis and limbs.Ensure that all movement is slow and controlled.If the rescuer is alone, a drag technique may be necessary.
The unconscious victim is turned on their side to:
obtain and maintain a clear airway
provide ready access to the airway
facilitate drainage and lessen the risk of inhaling foreign material
avoid unnecessary bending and twisting of the neck
permit continuing observation of the victim.
With an unconscious casualty, care of the airway takes precedence over any other injury.
Any unconscious casualty must be handled gently with no twisting or forward movement of the head and spine.
Laryngeal spasm is the persistent contraction of the muscles of the larynx (voice box) causing the vocal cords to come together, and resulting in partial or complete blockage of the entrance to the trachea (windpipe). It is usually caused by foreign material at the entrance to the windpipe. This closure prevents the passage of air to and from the lungs. The casualty becomes blue or unconscious from a lack of oxygen. When consciousness is lost, the spasm usually relaxes.
If the casualty is conscious, reassure and encourage the relaxation of breathing.
If the casualty is unconscious, then the rescuer must utilise the D.R.A.B.C. Action Plan, taking particular care with airway management.
Cyanosis is bluish discolouration of the skin and lining of the mouth. It is associated with inadequate oxygen in the blood.
It is the preservation of life by the establishment of and/or maintenance of airway, breathing and circulation and related emergency care without the use of equipment. (Equipment in this definition does not exclude the use of pocket masks and other such barrier devices.)
Non fatal drowning is the term used when an immersion victim survives for 24 hours after arrival at a medical facility. It implies that while initial resuscitation was successful, full recovery has not occurred.
During the course of a rescue, it may be necessary to commence expired air resuscitation (EAR) while still in the water. External cardiac compression (ECC) is not possible in the water but successful EAR has been documented on many occasions.
The principles of resuscitation in the water are similar to those for resuscitation on land:
establish a clear airway
check for presence or absence of breathing
if breathing is absent, commence EAR using the mouth to nose technique
check for pulse - this may be difficult if you are supporting a person in deep water
if there is no pulse, you will have to make a decision to get to shore as soon as possible. (This may mean not ventilating the person on the way to safety. If it is possible to perform EAR successfully in the water, then it may be safe to continue there but, in general, you should move the casualty to dry land as quickly as possible, to reduce the possibility of loss of body temperature.)
Successful deep water resuscitation is documented only where the rescuer was using some type of flotation aid, eg. board, jacket, or flippers (fins).
Royal Life Saving Society, New Zealand
Enquiries:Marie Baker, ONZMPresident71 Raine Street, East Wanganui, Wanganui 4500Ph (06)343 2677Email: email@example.com
Award Secretary:Deidre HitchcockEmail: firstname.lastname@example.org